当前位置:首页 > 刊物 > 亚洲法与社会杂志
《亚洲法与社会杂志》目录(2023)Volume 10, Issue 3
2024年03月25日 预览:


【编者按】本期集中推送杂志第10卷第3期(2023年10月)的目录,以方便读者查阅和引用,也可方便研究者了解本刊录用稿件的方针和特色。欢迎大家积极参与全英文学术期刊Asian Journal of Law and Society的建设,在这个平台上构筑一个跨学科、跨国界的知识共同体!



The Regulation of Informal Trade Credit (Ograyi) in Afghanistan



Nafay Choudhury

Affiliation: Institute for Global Law and Policy, Harvard Law School, Cambridge




Abstract: This article explores the creation, circulation, and regulation of informal trade credit or “Ograyi” in Afghanistan. The practice of ograyi allows businesses to access short-term credit, from either their suppliers or third parties, to acquire specified goods. This paper provides an account of the non-legal practices that regulate ograyi transactions. Ograyi vitally depends on the development of trust between parties. Clientelism helps to maintain stable relationships that can offset market unpredictability. Widespread market norms and practices establish the general behaviour of participants. Parties also renegotiate the terms of the contract if circumstances make it impossible for the creditor to repay the loan in the agreed timeframe. Furthermore, bank credit remains largely unavailable or unappealing to many businesses, and the legal system provides limited recourse in the case of contractual breach. Thus, the non-legal practices regulating ograyi serve as a substitute for legal coercion.


摘要本文探讨了阿富汗非正规贸易信贷或者说 “Ograyi”的创建、流通和监管。Ograyi 的做法允许企业从其供应商或第三方获得短期信贷,以购买特定商品。本文介绍了规范 Ograyi 交易的法外 实践 做法Ograyi 在很大程度上依赖于各方之间的信任,客户主义有助于维持稳定的关系,从而抵消市场的不可预测性。广泛的市场规范和实践确立了参与者的一般行为,如果出现债 人无法在约定时间内偿还贷款的情况,各方还可以重新谈判合同条款。此外,对许多企业来说,银行信贷在很大程度上仍然难以获得或缺乏吸引力,并且法律制度在违约情况下提供的追索权也相当有限。因此,规范 Ograyi 的法外 实践 做法可以替代法律威慑 (发挥作用)


Keywords: informal trade credit; law; Afghanistan; trust; banking; economy




Demystifying the Proliferation of Online Peer-to-Peer Lending in Indonesia: Decoding Fintech as a Regulatory Challenge



David Tan

Affiliation: Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, Batam International University, Batam; School of Law, Pelita Harapan University, Tangerang; and The Dickson Poon School of Law, King’s College London



巴淡国际大学法学院; 佩利塔霍普 希望之光大学法学院,坦格朗 伦敦国王学院 潘迪生法学院,伦敦国王学院。


Abstract: This paper purports to study the enormous proliferation of fintech online peer-to-peer (P2P) lending in Indonesia, along with their risks and the prevailing regulations of fintech online P2P lending. This article also suggests a varied spectrum of regulatory actions for regulating online P2P lending as an approach to increase consumer protection and stimulate the growth of Indonesia’s financial inclusion. It highlights the regulative risks and challenges of fintech online P2P lending in Indonesia and has discovered various spectra of regulatory responses that the Indonesian government can practise to regulate this potential industry. Solid recommendations were also given to regulators to better develop the present regulatory framework. This paper adds to the literature on the prevailing practice of online P2P lending by offering a legal outlook involving legal protection and the newly emerging fintech industry from an Indonesian context.


摘要本文旨在研究金融科技在线点对点借贷(P2P)在印度尼西亚的激增现象,以及金融科技在线P2P借贷的风险和现行法规。本文还提出了各种监管行动建议以规范在线 P2P 借贷,从而加强消费者保护并刺激印度尼西亚普惠金融的发展。文章强调了印度尼西亚金融科技在线 P2P 借贷的监管风险和挑战,并发现了印尼政府为监管这一潜在行业可采取的各种监管对策。此外,还向监管机构提出了切实可行的建议,以更好地发展当前的监管框架。本文以印度尼西亚为背景,展望涉及法律保护和新兴金融科技行业的法律前景,从而为关于在线P2P 借贷现行做法的文献增添新内容。


Keywords: peer-to-peer lending; P2P lending; crowdfunding; fintech; financial inclusion; financial regulation

关键词点对点借贷;P2P 借贷;众筹;金融科技;普惠金融;金融监管



Algorithmic Credit Scoring in Vietnam: A Legal Proposal for Maximizing Benefits and Minimizing Risks



尼古拉斯·莱内兹(Nicolas Lainez


乔迪·加德纳(Jodi Gardner



Abstract: Artificial intelligence (AI) and big data are transforming the credit market around the world. Algorithmic credit scoring (ACS) is increasingly used to assess borrowers’ creditworthiness, using technology to glean non-traditional data from smartphones and analyze them through machine-learning algorithms. These processes promise efficiency, accuracy, and cost-effectiveness compared with traditional credit scoring. However, this technology raises public concerns about opacity, unfair discrimination, and threats to individual privacy and autonomy. Many countries in Southeast Asia are introducing ACS in consumer finance markets, althougheven with the significant concerns raisedthere is an ongoing and concerning lag in oversight and regulation of the process. Regulation is vital to delivering big data and AI promises in the financial services market, while ensuring fairness and public interest. This article utilizes Vietnam, where the lending industry deploys ACS but in a situation of legal limbo, as a case-study to analyze the consequences of this technology. Vietnam is one of the foremost Southeast Asian countries in which ACS usage is spreading rapidly, and this provides an excellent opportunity to review the regulation, or lack thereof, and determine the implications that this may have for other countries that are currently introducing ACS in consumer finance markets. The article concludes with a proposal to regulate ACS in Vietnam based on international regulation and guidelines on ACS, data privacy, and AI to enable a transparent, accessible, and fair process.


摘要:人工智能(AI)和大数据正在改变世界各地的信贷市场。算法信用评分(ACS)越来越多地被评估借款人的信用度,利用技术从智能手机中收集非传统数据,并通过机器学习算法对其进行分析。与传统的信用评分方法相比,这些流程允诺可以提高效率、准确性和成本-效用。然而,这种技术引发了公众对不透明、不公平歧视以及威胁个人隐私和自主权的担忧。许多东南亚地区的国家都在消费金融市场中引入了算法信用评分。即使对此已经有了强烈的关切,对这一过程的监督 监管 规章制度仍然滞后,令人担忧。要在金融服务市场实现大数据和人工智能给出允诺 的目标 ,同时确保公平和公众利益,监管至关重要。本文以越南为例 ,分析该技术的后果。 ——越南的借贷行业使用了算法信用评分,但这项技术在法律规制尚属空白地带——分析该技术的后果。越南是算法信评分正在迅速普及主要东南亚国家之一,这为 我们 提供了一个绝佳的机会来审视监管或缺乏 监管 监管 缺失 的情况,并 查明 衡量这对其他目前正在消费金融市场 引入算法信用评分的国家可能产生的影响。本文最后提出了一项建议 越南对算法信用评分的 监管 管制,应基于 有关算法信用评分 、数据隐私和人工智能 国际法规和指导方针算法信用评分、数据隐私和人工智能进行监管,以实现透明、便捷和公平的评估流程。


Keywords: algorithmic credit scoring, benefit, risk, regulation, Vietnam

关键词:算法信用评分、收益、风险、 监管 、越南

文章4Wait-and-See or Whack-a-Mole: What Is the Best Way to Regulate Fintech in China?



许多奇(Duoqi Xu),复旦大学  

C.约翰·泰勒(C. John Taylor),新南威尔士大学

任愿达Yuanda Ren),复旦大学


Abstract: Chinese fintech, initially taking the form as “Internet finance,” is growing rapidly and poses great challenges to its financial regulatory authorities. Acclaimed as a new financial innovation, Internet finance was once accepted and even welcomed by the normally conservative Chinese financial regulators, who simultaneously adopted a wait-and-see strategy, to encourage such innovation and avoid overwhelming regulation. The benevolent regulation stance, however, bred rampant Ponzi schemes or fake financial innovation, resulting in tremendous monetary losses among lots of investors. To show a quick and active response, the central government popped into a whack-a-mole game, starting a four-year campaign of strict Internet finance regulation that has even cracked down on all the P2P lending platforms. This article analyzes the regulatory policy updates of Chinese Internet finance that is transforming to certain kinds of lawful fintech with difficulties, and that adaptive regulatory-organization restructure, regulatory-system optimization, and regulatory-model innovation would be more effective and constructive regulatory options.


摘要最初互联网金融 为雏形 的形式出现中国金融科技发展迅速,给金融监管部门带来了巨大挑战。被誉为一种新的金融创新互联网金融,一度 一向 通常保守的中国金融监管机构接受甚至欢迎,他们同时采取观望策略,鼓励这种创新,避免过度监管。然而,宽松的监管立场滋生了猖獗的庞氏骗局或虚假金融创新,导致许多投资者遭受巨额 经济 财产损失。为了展示快速积极 应对 的反应,中央政府突然玩起了打地鼠游戏,开始了为期四年 的严格互联网金融 严格 监管运动,甚至打击了所有的P2P 网络 借贷平台。本文分析了中国对于互联网金融—— 其正在 艰难转型为某种合法金融科技——的监管政策更新 ,这种适应性的监管组织 重构 重组、监管体系优化和监管模式创新将是更有效、更具建设性的监管 选择 方式


Keywords: Internet finance; fintech; wait-and-see strategy; whack-a-mole game; fake financial innovation



文章5Automating Intervention in Chinese Justice: Smart Courts and Supervision Reform



斯特拉顿·帕帕扬尼斯 Straton Papagianneas),中国上海美国学校,莱顿大学人文学院区域文化研究所


Abstract: This article examines how smart courts enhance the reform of judicial responsibility and the trial supervision and managementmechanism. It holds that smart courts, while meant to provide better judicial services and improve access to justice, have the additional goal of enhancing the restructuring of accountability and power structures. It argues that automation and digitization help institutionalize and codify political supervision. Smart courts help resolve tension between the two opposing requirements of Chinese courts to maintain legal rationality and independent adjudication on the one hand, and the need for flexibility to allow intervention on the other. This article provides an account of the automation of trial supervision and management and explores the role of technology in enhancing political intervention in Chinas legal system. This investigation draws on internal court reports and central and local judicial documents, supplemented with a review of Chinese empirical scholarship.


摘要:文章探讨了智慧法院如何加强司法责任体制和“审判监督管理”机制的改革。本文认为,智慧法院在具有提供更好司法服务和 改善 丰富司法救助渠道的目标的同时,还具有加强问责制和权力结构调整的额外目标。文章还认为,自动化和数字化有利于政治监督的制度化和法典化。智慧法院有助于解决中国法院在保持法律合理性和独立裁决与允许灵活干预这两种对立要求之间的紧张关系。本文对“审判监督管理”的自动化进行阐述,并探讨技术在 加强 中国法律体系中 政治干预 方面 强化作用。上述考察借鉴了法院内部报告以及中央和地方司法文件,并辅之以对中国实证学术研究的回顾。


Keywords: smart courts, judicial responsibility reform, trial supervision and management, automation, China, justice



文章6Order of Power in Chinas Courts



Ling Li维也纳大学


Abstract: This article presents a theory of the order of power to explain the dynamics and interaction between the political and legal orders in Chinas courts. This theory posits that the political order is embodied in the extensive administrative ranking system (ARS) of the Peoples Republic of China and has a systematic impact on the legal order regardless of the subject matter. The ARS is a system that regulates power relations between various institutional and personal actors in all key power fields, including courts. According to this theory, power, as stratified by the ARS, relativizes law during the processes of legal implementation, application, and enforcement. This theory provides a coherent explanation of judicial behavioural patterns in different subject matters, such as the centralization of criminal investigations in some crimes but not others, the distribution of corruption in Chinas courts, and the outcome patterns of administrative litigation. Whilst the conventional wisdom sees that the political and the legal orders in Chinas courts are partitioned based on the subject matter, this theory asserts the opposite: the impact of the political order is systemic, comprehensive, and applicable to the entire legal field. This article fills a knowledge gap in Chinese law and politics, where the ARS has received little attention except for recent studies on administrative litigation. The article also identifies two overlooked but distinctive features of the ARSits multidimensionality and interconnectivityour understanding of which is disproportionately poor in relation to their significance.



文章提出权力秩序理论以解释中国法院中政治秩序和法律秩序之间的动态与互动关系。该理论认为,政治秩序体现在中华人民共和国广泛的行政等级制度(ARS)中,且 论什么领域事项都对法律秩序产生系统性影响。ARS是一个调节包括法院在内的所有关键权力领域中各种机构和个人行为者之间权力关系的制度。根据这一理论,被ARS分层的权力会在法律实施、适用和执行过程中将法律相对化。该理论为不同主题的司法行为模式提供了连贯的解释,如刑事侦查在某些犯罪中的集中化、 另一些犯罪 则不然, 腐败在 中国法院 腐败的分布情况,以及行政诉讼的结果模式。传统观点认为,中国法院的政治秩序和法律秩序是基于领域主题划分的,本理论则持相反观点:政治秩序的影响是系统的、全面的,适用于整个法律领域。除了最近关于行政诉讼的研究外,ARS在中国法律和政治领域几乎没有受到关注,本文则填补了这一知识空白。文章同时指出ARS两个被忽视但独特的特征——多维性和 相互关联 互连——我们对这两个特点的认知 程度相较 浅薄与其 重要性 不成比例


Keywords: Chinas courts, comparative constitutional law, Chinese legal system, law and politics, administrative rank, authoritarian regimes

关键词中国法院,比较宪法,中国 法律体系 法制,法律和政治,行政级别,威权政体


文章7Neocolonial Digitality: Analyzing Digital Legal Databases Using Legal Pluralism



萨尔瓦·塔巴苏姆·霍克(Salwa Tabassum Hoque),纽约大学


Abstract: A prevalent assumption is that digital legal databases generate an exhaustive and inclusive archive for academics and legal professionals to use for gathering information. Bridging theories and methods from digital media studies and legal anthropology, I challenge this assumption and demonstrate how digitizing law is a politicized process that is tied to legacies of colonialism and modern epistemic frameworks of law and justice. Employing the concept of legal pluralism, I conduct a comparative study of urban secular state courts and rural Islamic/customary non-state courts (shalish) in Bangladesh to show how the construction of digital legal databases distorts and erases alternate frameworks of law and women’s socio-legal experiences. I discuss two significant use of digital legal databases to highlight why it is important to study the gaps and prejudices: (1) they are central to generating new forms of archives—digital archives; (2) they provide the data sets to help train artificial intelligence and influence automated outputs. I develop the term “neocolonial digitality” to explain how power related to legacies of colonialism and other forms of discrimination are embedded in the digitizing process. This concept also holds space for the newer forms of hierarchies, exclusions, and power structures that digitality permits, focusing on the particular harms marginalized communities encounter in the Global South.


摘要一个普遍假设是,数字法律数据库为学者和法律专业人 收集信息 提供了一个用于收集信息内容详尽 、包罗万象 包容的档案 笔者将数字媒体研究和法律人类学的理论和方法 相衔接 联系起来,对这一假设提出质疑,并证明法律数字化是一个政治化的过程,与殖民主义的遗留以及现代法律和 司法 正义的认识框架有关。运用法律多元主义的概念,笔者对孟加拉国的城市世俗国家法院和农村伊斯兰/习惯非国家法院(shalish)进行了比较研究,以 明数字法律数据库的建设如何扭曲和 抹杀 抹去 了其他 替代的法律框架和妇女的社会法律 经验 经历笔者讨论了数字法律数据库的两个重要用途,以强调研究差距和偏见重要:(1)它们是生成数字档案这一 形式 档案形式的核心;(2它们提供数据集来帮助训练人工智能并影响自动化输出。笔者提出了新殖民 主义 数字化一词以解释与殖民主义遗留和其他形式歧视有关的权力是如何嵌入数字化过程的。聚焦于南半球边缘化社区所遭遇的特殊伤害这一概念也为数字化所允许的新形式的等级制度、排斥和权力结构提供了空间。


Keywords: digital database; legal pluralism; South Asia; AI Judge; Global South; Bangladesh




Book Review:

1. The Transformative Evolution of Human Dignity in Asia’s Modern State-Building Projects - Human Dignity in Asia: Dialogue Between Law and Culture. Edited by Jimmy Chia-Shin Hsu. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2022. 386 pp. US$140.00

《亚洲人的尊严:法律与文化之间的对话》编者:Jimmy Chia-Shin Hsu


2. SCO and New Horizons for the Multi-Polar World - The Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Exploring New Horizons. By Sergey Marochkin and Yury Bezborodov (eds.), New York: Routledge, 2022. 262 pp. Hardcover $153.00

《上海合作组织:探索新地平线》编者:Sergey Marochkin & Yury Bezborodov


3. The Constitution and Religion - Buddhism and Comparative Constitutional Law. By Tom Ginsburg & Benjamin Schonthal. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2023. 300 pp. Hardcover $125.00

《佛教与比较宪法》作者:Tom Ginsburg & Benjamin Schonthal