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2011-06-05 [author] 马林诺夫斯基 preview:



The leitmotiv of sociological theory and research is "individual, group, and their mutual dependence." Since functional sociology includes not merely the emotional and the biological aspects of mental processes but also man's biological reality, the bodily needs, the environmental influences, and the cultural reactions to them must be studied side by side. Not only does the individual depend upon the group in whatever he achieves, but the group in all its individual members depends upon the development of a material outfit which, in its essence, is an addition to the human anatomy and which entails corresponding modifications of human physiology. The relation is not of the individual to society or the group but to a plurality of groups. Analysis of a society into aspects and into institutions must be carried out simultaneously if a complete understanding of that society is desired. The analysis of such aspects as economics, education or social control, and political organization defines the type and level of the characteristic activities in a culture, discloses the totality of motives, interests, and values of the individual, and gives insight into the whole process by which the individual is conditioned or culturally formed, and of the group mechanism of this process. The analysis into institutions gives the concrete picture of the social organization within the culture. The twofold approach through the study of the individual with his innate tendencies and their cultural transformation and the study of the group as the relation and coordination of individuals with reference to space, environment, and material equipment is necessary. Symbolism, which is in essence that modification of the human organism which allows it to transform the physiological drive into a cultural value, must make its appearance with the earliest appearance of human culture. Symbols are necessary for communication, for the incorporation of an effective element into a cult

[keywords]functional analysis;plurality of groups;symbolism